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• • •, or Japanese, have appeared in translation in many different languages in different countries. France represents about 40% of the European manga market and in 2011 manga represented 40% of the comics being published in the country. In 2007, 70% of the comics sold in Germany were manga. In the, manga comprises a small (but growing), especially when compared to the inroads that or Japanese have made in the USA.
One example of a manga publisher in the,, functions as the American affiliate of the Japanese publishers. The UK has fewer manga publishers than the U.S. Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Flipping [ ] Since written Japanese fiction usually flows from right to left, manga artists draw and publish this way in Japan. When first translating various titles into Western languages, publishers reversed the artwork and layouts in a process known as 'flipping', so that readers could follow the books from left-to-right. However, various creators (such as ) did not approve of the modification of their work in this way, and requested that foreign versions retain the right-to-left format of the originals. [ ] Soon, due both to fan demand and to the requests of creators, more publishers began offering the option of right-to-left formatting, which has now become commonplace in North America.
Left-to-right formatting has gone from the rule to the exception. Translated manga often includes notes on details of that foreign audiences may not find familiar. One company, (founded 1997), produces manga in the United States with the right-to-left format as a highly publicized point-of-difference. [ ] Asia [ ] China [ ] The Chinese Ministry of Culture announced in 2015 that it has blacklisted 38 Japanese anime and manga titles from distribution in China, including popular series like and online or in print, citing 'scenes of violence, pornography, terrorism and crimes against public morality.' Indonesia [ ] Manga in Indonesia is published by,,, and, and has greatly influenced Indonesia's original comic industry.
The wide distribution of actually contributes to the growth of publication of bootleg manga, which is printed in lower quality. One of the most notable publisher is Seventh Heaven which publishes bootleg version of.
Many popular titles, such as, Loki, Magister Nagi, Rose Hip Zero, and, have been pirated, which draws controversy toward manga readers in Indonesia. Philippines [ ] Manga in the Philippines were imported from the USA and were sold only in specialty stores and in limited copies. The first manga in Filipino language is which was published by J-Line Comics and was then followed. A few local publishing companies like feature manga created by local artists whose stories are usually based from popular written books from the writing site and are read from left to right instead of the usual right-to-left format for Japanese manga.
The very first commercial local manga is, an adaptation of the book written by Wattpad writer HaveYouSeenThisGirl. The art was done by Enjelicious. In 2015, has announced that they will start publishing manga titles in the Filipino language with the line-up starting with 's and 's. In 2015, manga became popular through the introduction of BL manga by printing company BLACKink. Among the first BL titles to be printed were Poster Boy, Tagila, and Sprinters, all were written in. BL manga have become bestsellers in the top three bookstore companies in the Philippines since their introduction in 2015. Singapore [ ] The company publishes manga in English and in; some of Chuang Yi's English-language titles are also imported into, and the.
Singapore also has its own official Comics Society, led by manga artist, illustrator of the series. Thailand [ ] In, before 1992, almost all available manga were fast, unlicensed, poor quality bootlegs. However, due to copyright laws, this has changed and copyrights protect nearly all published manga. Thailand's prominent manga publishers include, Siam Inter Comics, Vibulkij,. Many parents in Thai society are not supportive of manga.
In October 2005, there was a television programme broadcast about the dark side of manga with exaggerated details, resulted in many manga being banned. The programme received many complaints and issued an apology to the audience. In 2015, manga have become popular in mainstream Thai consumers, leading to television series adapted from BL manga stories since 2016. Europe [ ] France [ ] 'French exception' [ ] France has a particularly strong and diverse manga market. Many works published in France belong to genres not well represented outside Japan, such as too adult-oriented drama, or too experimental and avant-garde works. Early editors like have published Hong-Kong authors (, Yu & Lau) or Korean authors (Kim Jae-hwan, Soo & Il, Wan & Weol and ) in their manga collection during 1995/1996 which is quite uncommon. Also, some Japanese authors, such as, are relatively unknown in other western countries but received much acclaim in France.