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Schematic of Model 1891 (top left) The 3-line rifle, Model 1891, its original official designation, was adopted by the Russian military in 1891. There have been several variations from the original rifle, the most common being the M1891/30 (commonly referred to as 'the 91/30' by shooters), which was a modernized design introduced in 1930.
Some details were borrowed from Nagant's design. One such detail is the attachment of the magazine spring to the magazine base plate. In Mosin's original design the spring was not attached to the base plate and, according to the Commission, could be lost during cleaning. Another detail is the form of the that could hold five cartridges to be loaded simultaneously into the magazine.
Another detail is the form of the 'interrupter', a specially designed part within the receiver, which helps prevent double feeding. The initial rifle proposed by Mosin lacked an interrupter, leading to numerous failures to feed. This detail was introduced in the rifle borrowing from Nagant's rifle. Although the form of the interrupter was slightly changed, this alteration was subsequently borrowed back by the Commission for the Model 1891 Mosin–Nagant. During the modernization of 1930, the form of the interrupter was further changed, from a single piece to a two-piece design, as the part had turned out to be one of the least reliable parts of the action.
Only the clip loading cartridges and the attachment of the magazine spring to the magazine base plate in subsequent models were designed by Nagant. Considering the rifle could be easily loaded without using a clip, one cartridge after another, the magazine spring attached to the magazine base plate is the only contribution of Nagant to all rifles after 1930. Nagant's legal dispute [ ] Despite the failure of Nagant's rifle, he filed a patent suit, claiming he was entitled to the sum the winner was to receive. It appeared that Nagant was the first to apply for the international patent protection over the 'interrupter', although he borrowed it from Mosin's design initially.
Mosin could not apply for a patent since he was an officer of the Russian army, and the design of the rifle was owned by the Government and had the status of a military secret. A scandal was about to burst out, with Nagant threatening he would not participate in trials held in Russia ever again and some officials proposing to expel Nagant from any further trials as he borrowed the design of the 'interrupter' after it was covered by the 'secrecy' status given in Russia of that time to military inventions and therefore violated Russian law.
Taking into consideration that Nagant was one of the few producers not engaged by competitive governments and generally eager to cooperate and share experience and technologies, the Commission paid him a sum of 200,000 Russian rubles, equal to the premium that Mosin received as the winner. The rifle did not receive the name of Mosin, because of the personal decision taken by, which was made based on the opinion of the Defence Minister: there are parts in this newly created design, invented by Colonel Rogovtzev, by Lt.-General Chagin's Commission, Captain Mosin and small-arms manufacturer Nagant, therefore it is only fair to call it Russian 3-line rifle M1891. [ ] The Tzar himself dashed the word 'Russian' from this document with his own hand. This turned out to be a wise decision, as Leon Nagant remained the major contractor for the Russian Government, and in was adopted by the Russian army as the main sidearm. However, for the same reason and because of Nagant's attempts to use the situation for publicity, the 'Mosin–Nagant' name appeared in the Western literature (the rifle was never called this in Russia). The name is a misnomer from the legal point of view (taking into consideration the legal provisions of Russian law at that time, i.e. The law of the country to adopt the rifle) and from technical point of view, as none of the details borrowed from Nagant's design, even if removed, would prevent the rifle from firing.
Moreover, from the technical point of view the rifle that came to be called 'Mosin–Nagant' (or 'Nagant–Mosin') is the design proposed by Mosin, as further amended by Mosin with some details being borrowed from Nagant's design. Production of the Model 1891 began in 1892 at the ordnance factories of, and at Sestroryetsk Arsenal. An order for 500,000 rifles was placed with the French arms factory,. Russo-Japanese War [ ] In 1889 Tsar Nicolas ordered the Russian army to meet or exceed European standards in rifle developments with 'rifles of reduced caliber and cartridges with smokeless powder.' The new weapons would entail high velocities, exceeding 600 meters per second (2,000 ft/s) and would result in land battles both commencing and being capable of being fought at longer ranges, nearly two kilometers.